As a fabric, it’s known for its … • Controls and quarantines of affected areas have helped limit the spread of the insect, and eradication has been possible in a few relatively small areas with sufficiently strict controls. Premium Membership is now 50% off! The small, sticky seeds must be … By 1500, cotton was known generally throughout the world. Cotton looms interlace the tense lengthwise yarns, called warp, with crosswise yarns called weft, or filling. Cotton can be found as perennial treelike plants in tropical climates but is normally cultivated as a shrubby annual in temperate climates. Cotton is attacked by several hundred species of insects, including such harmful species as the boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafworm, cotton fleahopper, cotton aphid, rapid plant bug, conchuela, southern green stinkbug, spider mites (red spiders), grasshoppers, thrips, and tarnished plant bugs. Nonwoven cotton, made by fusing or bonding the fibres together, is useful for making disposable products to be used as towels, polishing cloths, tea bags, tablecloths, bandages, and disposable uniforms and sheets for hospital and other medical uses. The second group contains the standard medium-staple cotton, such as American Upland, with staple length from about 1.3 to 3.3 cm (0.5 to 1.3 inches). The fertilized blossoms fall off after a few days and are replaced by small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. How to use cotton in a sentence. Because young seedlings are especially sensitive to attack by a complex of disease organisms, treatment of seeds before planting is common. Faster production methods include rotor spinning (a type of open-end spinning), in which fibres are detached from the card sliver and twisted, within a rotor, as they are joined to the end of the yarn. Cotton. Ginned cotton is shipped in bales to a textile mill for yarn manufacturing. Conventional cotton production requires more insecticides than any other major crop, and the production of organic cotton, which relies on nonsynthetic insecticides, has been increasing in many places worldwide. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to shred the stalks), bedder (to shape the soil into ridges or seedbeds), planter, cultivator, sprayer, and harvester. Additionally, genetically modified “Bt cotton” was developed to produce bacterial proteins that are toxic to herbivorous insects, ostensibly reducing the amount of pesticides needed (). Properly timed insecticide application provides fairly effective control. Least plentiful and most difficult to grow, long-staple cottons are costly and are used mainly for fine fabrics, yarns, and hosiery. Cotton, seed-hair fibre of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). Cotton is made from the natural fibers of cotton plants, which are from the genus Gossypium.. Cotton is primarily composed of cellulose, an insoluble organic compound crucial to plant structure, and is a soft and fluffy material. A picker (picking machine) then wraps the fibres into a lap. Glyphosate-resistant cotton, which can tolerate the herbicide glyphosate, was also developed through genetic engineering. Cotton fibres may be classified roughly into three large groups, based on staple length (average length of the fibres making up a sample or bale of cotton) and appearance. Mechanization has also reduced substantially the labour needed to grow cotton. All cotton sold as organic in the United States must meet strict federal regulations covering how the cotton is grown. Linen also has natural water-wicking qualities, which means it draws water (or sweat) out of the skin and dries quickly. Cotton bed sheets are made from five types of cotton: Sea-Island, Asiatic, Pima, Upland and Egyptian. Scientists searching caves in Mexico found bits of cotton bolls and pieces of cotton cloth that proved to be at least 7,000 years old. Much of it is exported in processed form, largely as burlap. A traditional and still common processing method is ring spinning, by which the mass of cotton may be subjected to opening and cleaning, picking, carding, combing, drawing, roving, and spinning. Cotton, seed-hair fiber of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family. A species of boll weevil resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons was recorded in the late 1950s; this species is combatted effectively with a mixture of toxaphene and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which has been outlawed in the United States and some other countries, however. Handpicking also produces considerably cleaner cotton; mechanical harvesters pick the bolls by suction, accumulating loose material, dust, and dirt, and cannot distinguish between good and discoloured cotton. Chemical insecticides, which were first introduced in the early 1900s, require careful and selective use because of ecological considerations but appear to be the most effective and efficient means of control. For the production of cotton blends, air-jet spinning may be used; in this high-speed method, air currents wrap loose fibres around a straight sliver core. A chemical defoliant is usually applied before mechanical picking to cause the plants to shed their leaves, thus encouraging more uniform ripening of the bolls. Cotton accepts many dyes, is usually washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures. The fibres can be made into a wide variety of fabrics ranging from lightweight voiles and laces to heavy sailcloths and thick-piled velveteens, suitable for a great variety of wearing apparel, home furnishings, and industrial uses. Water wicking . According to the 2011 Textile Exchange Organic Cotton Farm & Fiber Report, approximately 151,079 metric tons (MT) of organic cotton (693,900 bales) were grown on 324,577 hectares (802,047 acres) in 2010­-2011. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Handpicking, carried out over a period of several days, allows selection of the mature and opened bolls, so that a higher yield is possible. Thinner strands are produced by the roving (slubbing) process, in which the sliver is converted to roving by being pulled and slightly twisted. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll. A card (carding) machine brushes the loose fibres into rows that are joined as a soft sheet, or web, and forms them into loose untwisted rope known as card sliver. Grown in warm climates around the world, their differences include … Find out why cotton is the fabric of your life. Blends (composites) are made during yarn processing by joining drawn cotton with other staple fibres, such as polyester or casein. Cotton is the most widely produced natural fiber on the planet. Warp yarns often are treated chemically to prevent breaking during weaving. Vice President, Research, Textile Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. How much organic cotton is grown globally? Cotton is a staple fiber, which means it is composed of different, varying lengths of fibers. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Combine harvesting ripe cotton in Alabama. It is comfortable to wear because it absorbs and releases moisture quickly. The first group includes the fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from about 2.5 to 6.5 cm (about 1 to 2.5 inches) and includes types of the highest quality—such as Sea Island, Egyptian, and pima cottons. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. • Within 80–100 days after planting, the plant develops white blossoms, which change to a reddish colour. During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. For higher-quality yarn, card sliver is put through a combing machine, which straightens the staple further and removes unwanted short lengths, or noils. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Tells the story of cotton -- where and how it's grown, processed and woven into cloth -- in simple terms. Kick off the holiday season with festive cotton looks, décor and more at the Cotton Style House - Holiday Edition at Amazon.com Shop. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Don't confuse cotton with cottonseed extract (gossypol). Learn about the different types of cotton fabrics and the common use of each, from clothing to home décor.

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