Today, the implementation of CI is explicitly compulsory for all Finnish schools. 2. The purpose of this chapter is to explore and analyze the kind of knowledge curriculum integration (CI) required of teachers and how teacher education should be developed to prepare teachers better for CI. Although Shulman has been criticized for a static understanding of the meaning of subject matter [16], there are many reasons why in this chapter Shulman’s theory is applied to the study of the challenges of CI. Second, themes can be sequenced inside a single subject or between subjects so that a topic is learned along a continuum; an example would be studying Middle Eastern religions first in religious studies followed by the rise of the Islamic Empires and the Crusades in history. For example, CI is now popular in Finnish schools as a means of teaching what climate change means and what can be done to stall, if not reverse it. It includes examples, metaphors, analogies, illustrations, activities, assignments, and demonstrations that make the content more accessible. Shulman argues that pedagogical content knowledge is the area that separates a teacher from an expert in a given scientific discipline [3]. Because student teachers do not necessarily have any prior experience of CI, it would be difficult to expect them to apply it successfully in practice if it was not part of a teacher education program [37]. What is the difference between knowledge and curriculum? Knowledge and Curriculum Book PDF- Are you looking for B.ed notes for free? Another question is how these kinds of studies affect teacher education and the development of teachers’ content knowledge. This is what is called pedagogical content knowledge. Built by scientists, for scientists. The third kind of pedagogical knowledge essential for CI is teachers’ ability to make content comprehensible to students. Curriculum at National level – NCF 2005 and NCFTE 2009 (G eneral Introduction). They represent school subjects as autonomous communities that are socio-politically constructed and constantly mutating. However, as noted above, the substance of the content knowledge of an expert and that of a teacher are probably different, because scientific disciplines and school subjects are not constructed identically. Accordingly, CI can be seen as having its own, although varying value base. Shulman’s theory is useful here, because it describes categories of teachers’ knowledge required for successful teaching. The content of every subject needs its own pedagogical approach, i.e., pedagogical content knowledge to make it comprehensible to students. In this chapter, the most relevant Shulman’s categories are briefly described, followed by a discussion of how these categories change in integrated contexts. It is not rare to find interdisciplinary science programs combining natural sciences and technology. This includes images of what is possible, of how a well-functioning school might look, what the students should become, and what can be understood as comprising a good education [3]. This can be called the missing paradigm of today. As seen in the quotation above, the Finnish core curriculum briefly describes the purpose of CI. Generally, researchers have been more interested in well-working performance than in the knowledge base and reasoning of teachers [20]. If the content of content knowledge does not come directly from scientific disciplines, then content knowledge should be considered as leaning on other sources, such as a curriculum, textbooks, teachers’ guides, and media. According to Shulman, a sound level of content knowledge is required for developing pedagogical content knowledge. Planning of a school curriculum is in itself one example of a wicked problem [15]. Universities with teacher education programs can take into account the need to develop teachers’ integrative knowledge by designing interdisciplinary study modules, although the difficulties and feasibility of using (inter)disciplinary knowledge directly for teaching purposes have been discussed above [25, 26]. நாகராஜன்] "B.Ed 2nd Year" No Customer Reviews . It is a challenge for every teacher to master even a preliminary understanding of all subjects. It is an addition to Shulman’s subject-centered theory. Lateral curriculum knowledge makes high demands of subject teachers and requires sharing information within schools. This chapter offers a theoretical contribution to pinpointing the challenges of implementing CI in schoolwork from the subject teachers’ perspective. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The curriculum even included a plan of comprehensive school based completely on an integrated curriculum [4]. CURRICULUM: SYLLABUS: The curriculum is based on the philosophy and goals of education. In addition, broad curriculum knowledge promotes collaboration when teachers can identify the intersections of subjects. Furthermore, building a better content knowledge base for CI could be an objective for teacher education, although it has been suggested that student teachers should first develop subject-based knowledge before getting into CI [33, 34]. Combining interdisciplinary courses and teacher education programs can improve students’ understanding of the links between disciplines. He also points out that for comprehension of their own subject matter, teachers would need to know how the concepts are related to other school subjects as well [3]. Curriculum knowledge includes awareness of various instructional materials, teaching procedures, and learning objectives. Without knowledge of these subcultures, cross-curricular coordination can be restricted. Bresler ([11], p. 36) describes it with a musical metaphor as “a shift from solo performance to a chamber work.” Thus, co-teaching and collaborative planning have to be perceived from the perspective of CI. It can even be directly aimed toward solving problems of the society or the local community. The fourth and most radical way is to organize all schoolwork holistically without any designated subjects. The core curriculum offers two concrete examples of integration structured on differentiated subjects [1]. These aspects are usually in the form of tacit knowledge, which guides everyday work, yet is not simple to express. Rich, versatile teaching then turns into rigidly planned, inflexible pedagogy. In Shulman’s theory and in the tradition of subject didactics, the pedagogical questions of school subjects have been widely discussed, but pedagogies of CI have been taken up to a much lesser degree. It is known that novice teachers in Finland are more interested in CI than are experienced teachers, but lack the courage and skills to implement it [33]. However, it has to be pointed out that this is not only a pedagogical issue, but also a social one. The outcome of experience in collaboration might not only be a better understanding of other subjects and their cultures, but also a better understanding of one’s own disciplines and subjects and their presuppositions and commitments [36]. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Then communication and shared understanding between teachers becomes crucial. The Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education describes the purpose and process of CI in the following way: The purpose of integrative instruction is to enable the pupils to see the relationships and interdependencies between the phenomena to be studied. In this way, CI is woven into the development of interdisciplinary studies in universities. The change is demanding, especially for secondary school teachers, who are specialized in teaching one or a few subjects, yet now are expected to create integrated learning opportunities by connecting a number of subjects.


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